Daftar Paket & Isinya di Sistem Unix

Di lingkungan sistem operasi Unix, aplikasi (software) dikenal sebagai package (paket). Masing-masing varian Unix punya cara sendiri-sendiri untuk menampilkan daftar paket yang terinstal. Artikel ini saya tulis sebagai catatan untuk mengingat-ingat aneka macam cara menampilkan daftar paket di beberapa varian Unix.

Di Solaris 10 misalnya saya ingin melihat paket Wireshark saya menggunakan perintah pkginfo. Karena di Solaris 10 penamaan paket cukup unik, saya perlu melihat dulu apa nama paket yang terdaftar.

root@fda05:/# cat /etc/release 
                   Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 s10s_u10wos_17b SPARC
  Copyright (c) 1983, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
                            Assembled 23 August 2011
root@fda05:/# 
root@fda05:/# pkginfo | grep -i wireshark
application SMCwires                         wireshark
root@fda05:/#

Dari hasil pkginfo di atas, saya bisa lihat bahwa nama paket Wireshark adalah SMCwires. Lalu saya bisa cari detil informasi tentang paket SMCwires menggunakan perintah yang sama seperti berikut ini :

root@fda05:/# pkginfo -l SMCwires
   PKGINST:  SMCwires
      NAME:  wireshark
  CATEGORY:  application
      ARCH:  sparc
   VERSION:  1.6.8
   BASEDIR:  /usr/local
    VENDOR:  Gerald Combs et al
    PSTAMP:  Steve Christensen
  INSTDATE:  Jul 30 2012 03:08
     EMAIL:  steve@smc.vnet.net
    STATUS:  completely installed
     FILES:      518 installed pathnames
                   7 shared pathnames
                  33 directories
                 134 executables
              266776 blocks used (approx)
root@fda05:/#

Dengan menggunakan opsi -l saya bisa lihat versi paket yang terinstal, lokasi instalasi, dsb. Meskipun saya tahu lokasi paket tersebut ada di /usr/local, saya masih belum tahu file apa saja yang dimiliki oleh paket SMCwires. Untuk memeriksa file apa saja yang dimiliki oleh paket tersebut saya bisa menggunakan perintah pkgchk seperti berikut ini :

root@fda05:/# pkgchk -v SMCwires
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/bin/capinfos
/usr/local/bin/dftest
/usr/local/bin/dumpcap
/usr/local/bin/editcap
/usr/local/bin/idl2wrs
/usr/local/bin/mergecap
/usr/local/bin/randpkt
/usr/local/bin/rawshark
/usr/local/bin/text2pcap
/usr/local/bin/tshark
/usr/local/bin/wireshark
/usr/local/doc
/usr/local/doc/wireshark
...
...
...
/usr/local/share/wireshark/tpncp
/usr/local/share/wireshark/tpncp/tpncp.dat
/usr/local/share/wireshark/tshark.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.dtd
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.xml
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wireshark-filter.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wireshark.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/ws.css
root@fda05:/#

Hasil perintah pkgchk tadi cukup panjang sehingga saya hanya tampilkan bagian awal & akhirnya saja.

Solaris 11 menggunakan pendekatan yang berbeda untuk menginvetarisir paket-paketnya. Kita perlu menggunakan perintah pkg list untuk melihat daftar paket yang terinstal di mesin Solaris 11. Misalnya seperti contoh berikut ini :

root@host02:/# cat /etc/release 
                            Oracle Solaris 11.1 SPARC
  Copyright (c) 1983, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
                           Assembled 19 September 2012
root@host02:/# 
root@host02:/# pkg list | grep wireshark
diagnostic/wireshark                              1.8.9-0.175.1.11.0.4.0     i--
diagnostic/wireshark/tshark                       1.8.9-0.175.1.11.0.4.0     i--
diagnostic/wireshark/wireshark-common             1.8.9-0.175.1.11.0.4.0     i--
root@host02:/#

Kalau di Solaris 10 kita menggunakan pkginfo di Solaris 11 kita menggunakan perintah pkg info (dengan spasi) untuk menampilkan detil informasi tentang suatu paket.

root@host02:/# pkg info wireshark
          Name: diagnostic/wireshark
       Summary: Graphical network protocol analyzer
      Category: Applications/Internet
         State: Installed
     Publisher: solaris
       Version: 1.8.9
 Build Release: 5.11
        Branch: 0.175.1.11.0.4.0
Packaging Date: Thu Sep 05 15:59:08 2013
          Size: 2.86 MB
          FMRI: pkg://solaris/diagnostic/wireshark@1.8.9,5.11-0.175.1.11.0.4.0:20130905T155908Z
root@host02:/#

Untuk melihat semua file yang dimiliki oleh Wireshark, Solaris 11 menyediakan perintah pkg contents seperti contoh di bawah ini :

root@host02:/# pkg contents  wireshark
PATH
usr
usr/sbin
usr/sbin/wireshark
usr/share
usr/share/applications
usr/share/applications/wireshark.desktop
usr/share/man
usr/share/man/man1
usr/share/man/man1/wireshark.1
usr/share/pixmaps
usr/share/pixmaps/wireshark.png
root@host02:/#

FreeBSD menggunakan perintah yang mirip dengan Solaris 11 untuk menampilkan informasi tentang suatu paket :

root@testbsd:~ # uname -a
FreeBSD testbsd 9.2-RELEASE FreeBSD 9.2-RELEASE #0 r255898: Thu Sep 26 22:50:31 UTC 2013     root@bake.isc.freebsd.org:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC  amd64
root@testbsd:~ # 
root@testbsd:~ # pkg_info | grep wireshark
wireshark-1.10.1    Powerful network analyzer/capture tool
root@testbsd:~ # pkg_info -L wireshark-1.10.1
Information for wireshark-1.10.1:

Files:
/usr/local/man/man1/capinfos.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/editcap.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/mergecap.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/rawshark.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/text2pcap.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/dftest.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/randpkt.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/reordercap.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/wireshark.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/dumpcap.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man1/tshark.1.gz
/usr/local/man/man4/wireshark-filter.4.gz
/usr/local/bin/capinfos
/usr/local/bin/dftest
/usr/local/bin/dumpcap
/usr/local/bin/editcap
/usr/local/bin/wireshark
/usr/local/bin/mergecap
/usr/local/bin/randpkt
/usr/local/bin/rawshark
/usr/local/bin/reordercap
/usr/local/bin/tshark
/usr/local/bin/text2pcap
...
...
... 
/usr/local/share/wireshark/tshark.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/text2pcap.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/tpncp/tpncp.dat
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.dtd
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.xml
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wireshark-filter.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/wireshark.html
/usr/local/share/wireshark/ws.css
/usr/local/share/applications/wireshark.desktop

root@testbsd:~ #

Sementara di Ubuntu Linux (atau Debian) kita bisa menggunakan perintah dpkg -l untuk menampilkan semua paket yang terinstal.

ttirtawi@gbt733:~$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 12.10
Release:    12.10
Codename:   quantal
ttirtawi@gbt733:~$ 
ttirtawi@gbt733:~$ dpkg -l | grep wireshark
ii  libwireshark-data                    1.8.2-2                                   all          network packet dissection library -- data files
ii  libwireshark2                        1.8.2-2                                   i386         network packet dissection library -- shared library
ii  wireshark                            1.8.2-2                                   i386         network traffic analyzer - GTK+ version
ii  wireshark-common                     1.8.2-2                                   i386         network traffic analyzer - common files
ttirtawi@gbt733:~$

Informasi semua file yang dimiliki suatu paket dapat diperoleh dengan menjalankan perintah dpkg -L seperti contoh di bawah ini :

ttirtawi@gbt733:~$ dpkg -L wireshark
/.
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/applications
/usr/share/applications/wireshark.desktop
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man1
/usr/share/man/man1/wireshark.1.gz
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/wireshark
/usr/share/doc/wireshark/copyright
/usr/share/pixmaps
/usr/share/pixmaps/wsicon32.xpm
/usr/share/icons
/usr/share/icons/hicolor
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/scalable
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/scalable/apps
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/scalable/apps/wireshark.svg
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps
/usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps/wireshark.png
/usr/share/menu
/usr/share/menu/wireshark
/usr/bin
/usr/bin/wireshark
/usr/share/doc/wireshark/README.Debian
/usr/share/doc/wireshark/changelog.Debian.gz
ttirtawi@gbt733:~$

Fedora Linux atau distro berbasis Red Hat umumnya menggunakan perintah rpm untuk segala hal yang berkaitan dengan paket-paket aplikasinya. Misalnya pada contoh di bawah ini, di Fedora 16 saya bisa menggunakan perintah rpm -qa untuk menampilkan semua paket yang terintal :

ttirtawi@appliance:~$ lsb_release -a
LSB Version:    :core-4.0-ia32:core-4.0-noarch
Distributor ID: Generic
Description:    Generic release 16 (Generic)
Release:    16
Codename:   Generic
ttirtawi@appliance:~$ 
ttirtawi@appliance:~$ rpm -qa | grep -i wireshark
wireshark-1.6.10-1.fc16.i686
ttirtawi@appliance:~$

Sama seperti contoh-contoh sebelumnya, untuk menampilkan informasi tentang semua file yang dimiliki oleh Wireshark saya bisa menggunakan perintah rpm -ql seperti ditunjukkan pada contoh di bawah ini :

ttirtawi@appliance:~$ rpm -ql wireshark
...
...
...
/usr/sbin/capinfos
/usr/sbin/dftest
/usr/sbin/dumpcap
/usr/sbin/editcap
/usr/sbin/mergecap
/usr/sbin/randpkt
/usr/sbin/rawshark
/usr/sbin/text2pcap
/usr/sbin/tshark
...
...
...
...
/usr/share/wireshark/rawshark.html
/usr/share/wireshark/services
/usr/share/wireshark/smi_modules
/usr/share/wireshark/text2pcap.html
/usr/share/wireshark/tpncp
/usr/share/wireshark/tpncp/tpncp.dat
/usr/share/wireshark/tshark.html
/usr/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp
/usr/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.dtd
/usr/share/wireshark/wimaxasncp/dictionary.xml
/usr/share/wireshark/wireshark-filter.html
/usr/share/wireshark/wireshark.html
/usr/share/wireshark/ws.css
ttirtawi@appliance:~$ rpm -qa | grep -i wireshark
wireshark-1.6.10-1.fc16.i686
ttirtawi@appliance:~$

2 thoughts on “Daftar Paket & Isinya di Sistem Unix

  1. Usefull post, i am able to search my gcc now

    # pkgchk -v SUNWgcc
    /usr
    /usr/sfw
    /usr/sfw/bin
    /usr/sfw/bin/c++
    /usr/sfw/bin/cpp
    /usr/sfw/bin/g++
    /usr/sfw/bin/gcc

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